LEVITATION USING STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS
LEVITATION USING STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS 
GO ...
SPACE PROPULSION USING EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELD
  GO ...
LEVITATION USING THE LEVITRON ANTIGRAVITY DEVICE  GO ...
MY BEST LEVITATION DEVICE: STARSHIP ENTERPRISE MODEL  GO ...

 
---- Other Methods of Levitation and Propulsion ----

GRAVITY CONTROL AND WARP DRIVE FOR SPACE TRAVEL  GO ...
AERODYNAMIC LIFT ANALYSIS OF AN ENCLOSED-FLOW HALF-DUCT  GO ...

| MAIN PAGE | SOFTWARE LIST | AEROTESTING | MISSION | RESUME |
Copyright 1999-2015 John Cipolla/AeroRocket. All rights reserved


(1) LEVITATION USING STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS
TOP
MagLev-1A levitation device based on the use of several ceramic magnets has been developed to demonstrate that levitation can be achieved using a single thread to vertically secure a levitated magnetic device from below while the levitated magnetic device is also being supported from below using the mutual repulsion of opposing magnetic fields.

It is simple to achieve levitation using a single thread to secure a levitated magnetic device from below while it is also being supported from above using another magnet of opposite polarity. However, using a single thread to vertically secure a levitated magnetic device from below while the levitated magnetic device is also being supported from below requires the levitated device to be located in a uniform magnetic field of opposing polarity. In the design presented below the bottom-mounted thread is used to "pull" the levitated upper magnet into the potential well of the support magnetic field located below. If the levitated magnetic device drifts into the negative curvature portion of the support magnetic field the levitated magnetic device will tip over and become unstable. The split design of the support magnetic field device provides a larger potential well for the levitated magnetic device resulting in greater overall stability.

To assure the levitated magnetic device is located in the potential well of the support magnetic field a mechanism to position the thread support-point relative to the center of the split support magnets is illustrated below. The upper Plexiglas plate is positioned and secured using two cap screws until the levitated magnetic device is centered and stable. In this configuration the levitated magnetic device is stable and will not crash even while carrying the system from place to place.

Levitation without the physical constraint of a bottom-mounted thread is possible if the levitated magnetic device is allowed to rotate like a top and if the proper amount of ballast or weight is added. The precession or gyroscopic action of the spinning magnetic device provides sufficient flipping resistance (torque) to prevent the top from overturning and aligning north to south with the base magnet. Also, the ballast acts to push the top into the potential well of the support magnet where the magnetic lines of force are optimum. As an example of this technology the Levitron Anti-Gravity Top achieves levitation without external constraint by using gyroscopic precession to counter the torque engendered by opposing magnetic fields and weight adjustments for optimum vertical top placement within the support magnetic field. However, gyroscopic levitation is a challenge to achieve and difficult to maintain because of temperature related effects on magnetic field strength. A totally new product called the Levitron Anti-Gravity Globe (see Figure-7b) overcomes the Earnshaw theorem constraint problem by using an electronically controlled electromagnet to properly position a levitated UFO within the support magnetic field. However, time varying magnetic fields not static magnetic fields are used to achieve levitation. The electronic kit provided by this link shows how levitation is achieved using a linear Hall effect sensor combined with an electromagnet to levitate a very small device containing one or more rare earth magnets. However, this article admits the technology is not scalable to larger sizes.

The object of this work is to remove as many constraints (degrees of freedom) as possible from the levitating magnetic device without violating Earnshaw's theorem. Earnshaw's theorem states that no static arrangements of magnetic or electric charges can be stable, alone or under gravity. More information on the use of static magnetic fields to achieve levitation using a minimum number of constraints will be posted here as work continues...

MagLev-2
Figure-1: Side view of the levitated device

MagLev-3
Figure-2: Slightly elevated view of the levitated device

MagLev-4
Figure-3: Oblique angle view of the levitated device

MagLev-5
Figure-4: Bottom view of the levitated device without "flying saucer"

MagLev-6
Figure-5: Oblique angle view of the levitated device without "flying saucer"

MagLev-7
Figure-6: Levitation device illuminated in the dark
Illumination uses a MagLight and inside-mounted 3/8" diagonal mirror

New levitation devices
Figure-7: Levitation device (right) supported by four split magnets (1/8" separation)
and an image illustrating the inner workings of Edmund Scientific's Revolution (left)

UFO SUSPENDED USING ELECTRONICALLY
CONTROLLED MAGNETIC PROPULSION

TOP

UFO model electromagnetically suspended
Figure-7b: UFO concept suspended using the Levitron Ion antigravity device

MY BEST LEVITATION DEVICE: STARSHIP ENTERPRISE MODEL

TOP


Figure-7c: StarShip Enterprise levitation using off-the-shelf parts.


REFERENCES
Levitron Anti-Gravity Top
Levitron AG Anti-Gravity Globe
Electronic Magnetic Levitation Kit
Diamagnetic Levitation
Magnetic Levitation Cradle

Back to TOP

 


(2) SPACE PROPULSION USING EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELD
TOP
A magnetic field as quantified by the magnetic field part of the Lorentz equation exerts a sideways force on electrons moving in a wire. The magnitude of the magnetic field deflecting force F, is given by F = i L X B. The relationship between vectors in this equation is illustrated in Figure-8 and Figure-9 using the rules for vector products. The deflection force F, being at right angles to the plane formed by i and B, will always be at right angles to i and to B. In the Lorentz equation i is the direction of positive charges moving in the wire which means electrons drift in the opposite direction. In addition, B is the magnetic field vector surrounding the wire and L is the vector defining the length and direction of the current carrying wire. Units for B, the magnetic field vector, is given the special name tesla or more commonly, weber/meter^2.
Where, 1 Tesla = 10,000 Gauss.

As a means for space propulsion the magnetic field vector B is replaced by the Earth's magnetic field which normally ranges from 0.3 to 0.6 Gauss and averages 0.57 Gauss. Applying the Lorentz equation the force F exerted on the spacecraft depends on the length, number and current carrying capacity of a bundle of cryogenically cooled conductors.

Lorentz relation
Figure-8: Magnetic field part of the Lorentz equation


Earth's Magnetic Field
Lorentz Force Vector Relationships

Figure-9: Lorentz equation used for space propulsion in vicinity of Earth's magnetic field. This image illustrates the relationship between the Earth's magnetic field B, force generated F, conductor current i and conductor length/direction, L

 

LORENTZ FORCE DEMONSTRATION
For this experiment the Earth's magnetic field was replaced by the uniform magnetic field between two ceramic magnets. The effective length of current carrying wire between the ceramic magnets is approximately 1.25 inches. The remaining length of conductor on the 18 inch long Plexiglas support goes unused because it is not immersed in a magnetic field. Power is supplied by four C cells for a total voltage of 6V. When power is switched "ON" a mass reduction of 0.8 grams was repeatedly measured using an Ohaus scale meaning a force of 784.5 dynes was applied to the conductor.

Lorentz Force Experiment

Figure-10: Experiment where current carrying wire (positive charges travel from right to left) is placed in a magnetic field generated by two ceramic magnets

Lorentz Force-Current Off
Figure-11: Current not flowing. Lorentz force on wire is 0.0 dynes

Lorentz Force-Current On
Figure-12: Current flowing. Lorentz force on wire is 784.5 dynes (0.8 grams)

Lorentz Force Animation
Animation of upward wire deflection by Lorentz force, F = i L X B
 

REFERENCES
Magnets (WIKIPEDIA)
Magnetic Fields (GSU)
Earth's Magnetic Field (WIKIPEDIA)
Magnetic Field of the Earth (GSU)
Earth's Inconsistent Magnetic Field (NASA)
The world's First Flying Saucer Made Right Here on Earth: A University of Florida researcher has plans on the drawing board for a flying saucer-shaped aircraft that turns the surrounding air into fuel
Fundamentals of Physics, Halliday and Resnick, 7th Edition (Text Book)

Back to TOP


| MAIN PAGE | SOFTWARE LIST | AEROTESTING | MISSION | RESUME |
Web Site Design by John Cipolla/AeroRocket.com